National Wildlife Refuges
Region 1 includes California, Oregon, and Washington (state) refuges.
Farallon Wilderness Area - California
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge
The Farallon Wilderness Area consists of West End (part of the South Farallons), Middle Farallon Island, the North Farallon Islands, and Noonday Rock. All of these areas, totaling 141 acres, are included within the boundary of Farallon National Wildlife Refuge, which also includes Southeast Farallon Island. This area comprises the largest continental seabird breeding colony south of Alaska, supporting 12 nesting species including the world's largest breeding colonies of ashy storm-petrel, Brandt's cormorant, and western gull. The islands also support five species of seals and sea lions, including the federally threatened Steller, or northern, sea lion. All areas within the Wilderness Area boundary are roadless, inaccessible, and undeveloped.
Oregon Islands Wilderness Area - Oregon
Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge
The 480-acre Oregon Islands Wilderness is located within Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge. It consists of over 200 islands, rocks, and reefs lying within three miles of shore and scattered for 307 miles along the Oregon coast.
Three Arch Rocks National Wildlife Refuge is included in the Oregon Islands Wilderness. It consists of a group of nine rocks, totaling 17 acres and located one-half mile off Oceanside, Tillamook County, Oregon. Its inclusion brings the total acreage of the Oregon Islands Wilderness to 497 acres.
Vegetation on these islands, when present, consists primarily of low-growing grasses and herbaceous plants. Oregon Islands Wilderness is primarily valuable as nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for colonial seabirds and shorebirds, and is also of special importance as loafing and breeding areas for four species of pinnipeds. All public entry onto these islands is prohibited.
San Juan Wilderness - Washington
San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuge
The San Juan Wilderness was established by Public Law 94-577 on October 19, 1976. The Wilderness Area includes 80 of the 83 islands (minus acres of Matia Island for a total of 352 acres) that make up the San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuge. The islands are scattered over 650 square miles of the San Juan Archipelago. The Refuge and Wilderness boundary extends only to the mean high tide line. The San Juan Islands Refuge was established to protect nesting seabirds, the predominant species being the glaucous-winged gull. Other nesting birds are double-crested cormorant and pelagic cormorants, tufted puffins, pigeon guillemots, rhinoceros auklets, black oystercatchers, and killdeer. An estimated 200 species of birds visit the islands each year. Harbor seals and whales are common in surrounding water and black brant have historically used the kelp beds for winter feeding.
Washington Islands Wilderness - Washington
Washington Islands National Wildlife Refuge
The Washington Islands Wilderness was established by Public Law 91-504, passed October 23, 1970. The Wilderness Area is composed of all the islands, rocks, and reefs along 100 miles of the Washington outer coast with the exception of Tatoosh Island (Makah Indian Reservation), James Island (Quileute Indian Reservation), and Destruction Island. The Wilderness is within three National Wildlife Refuges: Flattery Rocks, Quillayute Needles (excluding Destruction Island), and Copalis. Flattery Rocks and Quillayute Needles Refuges were included in the boundary of the Olympic National Park in 1986. Even though the land base is only about 450 acres, the area covers over 300 square miles. The Refuge supports a marine bird breeding population of 12 species estimated at 108,000 breeding pairs. They include Leach's storm petrel, fork-tailed storm petrel, double-crested cormorant, Brandt's cormorant, pelagic cormorant, black oystercatcher, glaucous-winged gull, common murre, pigeon guillemot, Cassin's auklet, rhinoceros auklet, and tufted puffin. Bald eagles and peregrine falcons also nest on the islands. The Refuges also support various other wildlife. Northern sea lions, California sea lions, and harbor seals regularly haul out on the rocks and reefs. River otters are resident on some islands, and sea otters use the surrounding kelp beds. Some larger, vegetated islands also support isolated populations of Townsend's voles, Trowbridge's shrews, shrew-moles, garter snakes, and salamanders.
Details mentioned in this article were accurate at the time of publication